WATER PUMPING WINDMILLS
ORIGINATORS OF THE HIGH CAPACITY WINDMILL PUMP
IRRIGATION, AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE, FARM AND RANCH WATER SUPPLY,
DOMESTIC AND COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLY, FILL PONDS, LAKES AND RESERVOIRS

WATER PUMPING WINDMILL HISTORY IN AMERICA

Early advertisement for Halladay windmills showed the greatly improved quality of life that came from the having an abundance of good water and from the extra time available for profitable activities when pioneering farmers were freed from the tiring work of pumping water with physical labor.
In 1854, a machinist in Connecticut (USA) named Daniel Halladay was asked by a traveling salesman to invent a windmill for pumping water and for other uses. At first, he was skeptical that there was a market for such a device, but his work went well he began manufacturing his new invention in Connecticut in 1854 achieving success. Soon, he moved his factory to Illinois to be closer to the rapidly growing western market. His windmill first demonstrated that a windmill could automatically turn to face changing wind directions without human attention and could control the speed of the wind wheel so that it did not destroy itself in the frequent storms by running too fast. Halladay's company, the U.S. Wind Engine & Pump Co., went on to become the largest manufacturer of windmills in America for a time.
Left: Early advertisement for Halladay windmills showed the greatly improved quality of life that came from the having an abundance of good water and from the extra time available for profitable activities when pioneering farmers were freed from the tiring work of pumping water with physical labor.
 Wind powered agricultural mills like this one were found in many villages across the developing western region of America. Often farmers would use their savings to join a cooperative, like the one shown above, by purchasing shares. This gave them access to much more equipment and capability than they could ever hope to acquire on their own. Halladay's Windmills were widely used for pumping water as well as operating farm and factory machinery. Other inventors developed countless variations and improvements. Windmill manufacturers usually provided all the pumps, accessories, tools, pipe, and farm machinery necessary to improve farm productivity and increase the quality of life in rural western America. Farmers sometimes built mills similar to this one to provide various services for their communities.
Above: Wind powered agricultural mills like this one were found in many villages across the developing western region of America. Often farmers would use their savings to join a "cooperative," like the one shown above, by purchasing shares. This gave them access to much more equipment and capability than they could ever hope to acquire on their own. Halladay's Windmills were widely used for pumping water as well as operating farm and factory machinery. Other inventors developed countless variations and improvements. Windmill manufacturers usually provided all the pumps, accessories, tools, pipe, and farm machinery necessary to improve farm productivity and increase the quality of life in rural western America. Farmers sometimes built mills similar to this one to provide various services for their communities.
Cover from the catalog of the first large windmill factory in America. The famous American car builder, Henry Ford visited a large windmill factory as a young boy and was deeply impressed by the organized production of the windmill factory. One large factory produced one complete windmill every three minutes!
More than 1000 factories have manufactured windmills in the United States alone. Most were small factories that made windmills for local use. Many failed after the first windstorm showed the weaknesses in their designs. About 20 factories produced large numbers of windmills with one factory building 99,965 windmills in one year at the peak of the market. Some windmill manufacturers specialized in exporting their products worldwide.
Left: Cover from the catalog of the first large windmill factory in America. The famous American car builder, Henry Ford visited a large windmill factory as a young boy and was deeply impressed by the organized production of the windmill factory. One large factory produced one complete windmill every three minutes!
The American west was well suited for the raising of livestock. The one serious problem most ranchers faced was access to a satisfactory supply of water. Cheap windmills made mostly of wood were sold in large quantities to solve this problem. Some of the larger wooden windmills could lift water 100M. It would take another 30 years for the large steel windmills to be developed that could dependable pump water from the deep wells that were necessary to reach water in the South Western states. Eventually, after much development work, the American windmill was being used to successfully pump water from wells more than 1200ft (400M) deep.
The American west was well suited for the raising of livestock. The one serious problem most ranchers faced was access to a satisfactory supply of water. Cheap windmills made mostly of wood were sold in large quantities to solve this problem. Some of the larger wooden windmills could lift water 100M. It would take another 30 years for the large steel windmills to be developed that could dependable pump water from the deep wells that were necessary to reach water in the South Western states. Eventually, after much development work, the American windmill was being used to successfully pump water from wells more than 1200ft (400M) deep.
The first all steel windmill and tower produced in America by the U.S. Wind Engine & Pump Co. This work was the result of a great amount of scientific development, testing and refining by the famous windmill engineer and designer, Thomas O. Perry. It led the way for all other successful manufacturers and today, many design details and engineering principals can be found in all successful windmills manufactured today. The U.S. Wind Engine & Pump Co. gave up on the marketing of all metal windmills after early disappointment caused by poor market acceptance and continued to produce their wooden windmills. Eventually, the steel windmill won popularity and went on to dominate the market, but by other manufacturers. U.S. Wind Engine & Pump Co. finally closed its doors. Like many other manufacturers, they were not able to keep up with a rapidly developing market and technology, even though they were the ones that developed the technology that all other successful manufacturers were to eventually adopt. Failing to understand Perry's principals was (and still is) the main reason new manufacturers in this business build products unable to compete successfully.
Wood windmills served their purpose, but did not hold up well. Parts became loose and eventually deteriorated. Much maintenance and repair work was required and eventually, they had to be replaced. They also lacked the high pumping capacity and ability to lift water high elevations that the newer geared steel windmills were able to accomplish. Manufacturers began replacing wood with more and more Iron and steel. Finally the first all metal windmill was produced. The all steel windmill was unpopular at first, because of expense and the perception that an all metal windmill would be much more difficult to maintain and repair than a wood windmill. In a few years with a large marketing effort that promised an 8ft steel geared windmill would pump more water than a 12ft wood windmill, all metal windmills finally won acceptance and eventually, only all metal windmills were offered for sale. Those manufacturers that did not make the change to the all-metal windmill in time found themselves without a market for their products.
Left: The first all steel windmill and tower produced in America by the U.S. Wind Engine & Pump Co. This work was the result of a great amount of scientific development, testing and refining by the famous windmill engineer and designer, Thomas O. Perry. It led the way for all other successful manufacturers and today, many design details and engineering principals can be found in all successful windmills manufactured today. The U.S. Wind Engine & Pump Co. gave up on the marketing of all metal windmills after early disappointment caused by poor market acceptance and continued to produce their wooden windmills. Eventually, the steel windmill won popularity and went on to dominate the market, but by other manufacturers. U.S. Wind Engine & Pump Co. finally closed its doors. Like many other manufacturers, they were not able to keep up with a rapidly developing market and technology, even though they were the ones that developed the technology that all other successful manufacturers were to eventually adopt. Failing to understand Perry's principals was (and still is) the main reason new manufacturers in this business build products unable to compete successfully.
Improving on the design work originally done by the U.S. Wind Engine & Pump Co., the windmill shown on the right was produced by LaVerne Noyes and Thomas O. Perry at the famous Chicago Aermotor works. Aermotor went on to dominate the world windmill market. The windmill shown on the right is their first commercially produced model. This model was produced for only a few months and was un-galvanized, being only protected by paint. Only one example is known to survive. The next model, used hot galvanizing and can still be found surviving with a number of examples still working.
Improving on the design work originally done by the U.S. Wind Engine & Pump Co., the windmill shown on the right was produced by LaVerne Noyes and Thomas O. Perry at the famous Chicago Aermotor works. Aermotor went on to dominate the world windmill market. The windmill shown on the right is their first commercially produced model. This model was produced for only a few months and was un-galvanized, being only protected by paint. Only one example is known to survive. The next model used hot galvanizing and can still be found surviving with a number of examples still working.
Aermotor began building an improved form of the original all metal windmill developed by the U.S. Wind Engine & Pump Co. and the race was on. The age of the wooden windmill began coming to an end. Countless improvements were made and competition was fierce in this large and rapidly growing market. In an effort to increase the edge on the competition, Aermotor began offering a popular tilting tower so that the owners could oil the windmill from the ground instead of climbing the tower every several days, sometimes in below freeing weather. Other manufacturers offered graphite bearings or oilers that could be operated from the ground using wires or chains. The tilting tower model disappeared from the market when windmills with completely enclosed gearboxes started being offered. Companies manufacturing enclosed windmills correctly advertised that they only needed oiling once a year.
Aermotor began building an improved form of the original all metal windmill developed by the U.S. Wind Engine & Pump Co. and the race was on. The age of the wooden windmill began coming to an end. Countless improvements were made and competition was fierce in this large and rapidly growing market. In an effort to increase the edge on the competition, Aermotor began offering a popular tilting tower so that the owners could oil the windmill from the ground instead of climbing the tower every several days, sometimes in below freeing weather. Other manufacturers offered graphite bearings or oilers that could be operated from the ground using wires or chains. The tilting tower model disappeared from the market when windmills with completely enclosed gearboxes started being offered. Companies manufacturing enclosed windmills correctly advertised that they only needed oiling once a year.
After a great amount scientific testing and trial and error development, the age of the modern windmill arrived. Many hundreds of newer windmill designs appeared on the market. Many disappeared as quickly as they had appeared. Manufacturers continued to offer new and improved models. The Iron Man Windmill incorporates the best features and most advanced, successful design of the American Windmill reaching a golden stage of technical perfection.
After a great amount scientific testing and trial and error development, the age of the modern windmill arrived. Many hundreds of newer windmill designs appeared on the market. Many disappeared as quickly as they had appeared. Manufacturers continued to offer new and improved models. The Iron Man Windmill incorporates the best features and most advanced, successful design of the American Windmill reaching a golden stage of technical perfection.
2011 marks the 156th anniversary, of the invention of the first
commercially successful self-controlled windmill in America.


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